Public procurement enacted policy in the form of incorporating incentives into procurement contracts for infrastructure projects may reduce transaction costs. Efficiency can thereby be not only pursued but obtained for public goods. Ultimately, the entire infrastructure market has expanded in both depth of perspective and breadth of vision.
Sustainability, Whole Building Energy and Other Topics
Newly created incentive programs are arising, technology adoption and application is increasing across the spectrum of infrastructure, and innovative financing techniques are creating new debt issuances such as social impact bonds, green bonds, clean energy bonds, environmental financing, private activity bonds, public-private partnership issued debt, century debt year maturities with either no call provisions or year provisions. An opportunity to exponentially increase public value in the form of newly defined 21 st Century public goods presents itself.
Author: Daniel G. The American Society for Public Administration is the largest and most prominent professional association for public administration. It is dedicated to advancing the art, science, teaching and practice of public and non-profit administration. Your email address will not be published. What fruit is used to describe New York?
Please capitalize the first letter of each word of the answer. By Daniel Bauer November 19, Oftentimes the best intentions lead various actors to pursue enriching communities by declaring infrastructure as the pathway to prosperity. About The American Society for Public Administration is the largest and most prominent professional association for public administration. Mail More Posts Follow Us! As a consequence, although the planned DSM strategy was proposed in , its outcomes are still insignificant [ 60 ]. Steps in adapting a new energy-saving behaviour at home [ ].
To change any energy-use behaviour, it is necessary to be motivated towards this practice, as the first step towards new energy-associated behaviour in residences. This motivation can be achieved through different sources, for instance, from society, related campaigns, education or even from economic factors.
For example, a person might be motivated to reduce their electricity bill by reducing unwanted consumption at home lights remaining on in an unoccupied room. In achieving the targeted goal, the person makes affordable changes in concrete terms, for example, replacing conventional bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps. Next, the person tries to learn and practice possible energy-saving behaviours such as switching off electric loads e. Later, at the end of the month the consumer measures their level of achievement by checking their electricity bill or by any other means, for example, indirect feedback: expected outcome.
If the desired outcome is achieved, this practice and outcome cycle continues, otherwise the process starts from the beginning i. Although studies suggest that this type of new behaviour change does not always persist [ , ], it might be an effective energy conservation step at the beginning of any DSM program. For example, this type of energy conservation might be effective before technology upgrades, such as energy-efficient appliance deployment, with immediate results in energy conservation, which is about At the same time, energy-use behaviour change does not require any significant capital cost.
Thus, energy-saving behaviour could be an effective DSM options in any environment, in particular, developing countries, where DSM strategy deployment is either at the planning stage or at initial implementation stage. Communication, outreach and information sharing with consumers are the vital pillars towards a successful DSM that involves residential energy-saving behaviour. At the beginning of this demand response program, a campaign would be an effective approach to involve people by sharing-related benefits of the program and to inform them that their potential participation would help to achieve certain DSM goals, which would be beneficial for both the consumer and supplier as well as for the environment.
Most often, involving local institutions and community leaders seem advantageous in achieving maximum involvement of the consumers. Perceived attributes of any innovation depend on several variables such as relative advantage of the program or innovation, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. Types of decision may be optional, collective or authoritative.
Effectiveness of communication channels in adopting the program varies from mass media to interpersonal. The nature of the social system also contributes to the adoption of the program based on its norms and degree of interconnectedness. Consumer experience is the next pillar that needs particular attention. Importantly, the level of success achieved by consumers needs to be clearly demonstrated to them, which would inspire further active participation. In contrast, if the achievement is not satisfactory, further suggestions such as development of technical knowledge through training or in-home tutorials and possible required changes in the home need to be recommended by the staff employed for the project.
In doing so, it is also important to ensure proper communication channels between consumers and the staff of the program, so that immediate support via phone or internet can be provided to the consumers depending on their needs. Track the improvement with respect to the reference or base case scenario. Monitor the overall growth of the program, including all aspects, such as marketing, acquisition, achievement, retention and benefits. Ensure reporting for different segments of the program such as executive, financial, operations.
Redefine the goals and associated targets, based on the learnings from the program. Share the achievement and success with employees and consumers through different means e.
Despite the benefits of energy-saving behaviour as a demand response strategy as mentioned earlier, it has some limitations too [ 87 ] such as: achievements are temporary and need continuous motivation [ , , ]. In direct rebound effect, the consumers might be motivated to consume more electricity at off-peak period. On the other hand, in indirect rebound effect, the consumers may purchase other goods and services which might have similar negative impacts.
For instance, a study in Beijing, China found that increase in energy efficiency of certain electrical home appliances such as air conditioners, cloth washers, and microwave ovens increases the indirect rebound effect significantly along with direct rebound [ ].
Although it may be true that residential energy-saving has these shortcomings, it is one worthwhile strategy to adopt at the beginning of any DSM plan as it requires a minimum amount of capital cost with immediate success. Most of the demand-side management studies to date have tended to focus on developed nations, and developing countries have received less attention in this particular aspect. Possible reasons might be technological limitations e. Although it may be true that there exist technological limitations in the developing world, there are other potential DSM options available that might reduce electricity demand including peak demand, particularly at the household level.
Energy-use behaviour change of householders is one of these potential DSM strategies, which not only requires minimum time to be implemented but also provides immediate success as a demand response program. Most often, this potential option has been neglected or underestimated in the developing world in relation to national DSM strategy development.
Bangladesh developed its national DSM plan in the electricity sector considering energy efficiency and conservation measures in This is a beneficial and timely initiative, but the plan did not extensively consider all the DSM potential strategies. In the light of the findings presented in this study, a national DSM plan for Bangladesh may need to consider energy-saving behaviour as a strategy to obtain full benefit of the DSM at each step of the program.
As capital cost of any project is a major barrier i. Public education or related knowledge development through campaigns in relation to any new demand response strategy deployment is an important aspect towards the overall success of the DSM program. A second DSM strategy could be appropriate technology deployment energy efficiency measures or smart grid development. Thus, applying time and incentive-based DSM programs would be beneficial.
Not all energy efficiency-based measures would be viable in achieving DSM; hence, modest pilot projects might be an effective option in identifying most appropriate options, which would be successful in the longer term. Moreover, subsidies can be an effective step at the beginning of any pilot project. Implementation of related regulations might be the final step in achieving maximum outcomes of DSM strategy deployment.
Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Energy-saving behaviour as a demand-side management strategy in the developing world: the case of Bangladesh. Open Access. First Online: 10 April DSM in developed and developing countries DSM offers benefits for both electricity providers the supply side and consumers the demand side at the same time [ 16 ].
The case of Bangladesh Energy, in particular, electrical energy, is one of the predominant factors in the economic development for any country. Bangladesh is not an exception to this trend; in , Fuel-specific generation shares are depicted in Fig. Open image in new window. Although electricity is indispensable for economic growth, extensive use of fossil fuels to generate electricity has adverse impacts on the environment, mainly in the form of greenhouse gas emissions.
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Hence, different measures have already been implemented around the globe to reduce emissions from the electricity sector, such as the introduction of DSM and renewable integration into the national grid. However, renewable integration into the electricity generation system of Bangladesh is limited due to resource constraints such as limited wind speed and limited hydro availability and storage capacity. Policy makers have, therefore, considered DSM strategies to reduce demand and emissions from the electricity sector. According to this plan, estimated demand reductions potential in different sectors are illustrated in Fig.
Clearly, the residential sector is able to contribute the most towards electricity demand reduction and this is possible if all household electrical appliances are replaced by highly efficient ones. Although it may be true that efficiency improvement of home appliances is an effective DSM option, there are some challenges and barriers associated with DSM deployment [ 63 , 64 ]. Of these challenges, capital cost and implementation time dominate [ 65 ].
However, there are some other DSM opportunities that do not need to deal with these challenges. In general, DSM is a measure to reduce load on the demand side consumers to ensure reliability on the supply side electricity generation and achieve benefits for both groups. For instance, it assures system efficiency, cost reduction for the grid operators; reduces electricity costs for end users, and also reduces carbon emissions from the electricity grid [ 68 ].
Nevertheless, the success of DSM depends on three key steps during the development process namely, DSM policy development, appropriate strategy selection, and implementation, as shown in Fig.
The key challenges associated with this step are illustrated in Fig. Energy-saving behaviour, on the other hand, is a potential demand response strategy that could play a vital role in managing electricity demand but has received less attention, as it is difficult to quantify its benefits compared with other demand response programs e.
Energy-saving behaviour can be categorized as investment and curtailment behaviour. The former approach requires financial investment to improve energy-saving behaviour, while the latter requires minimum or no monetary investment towards energy-saving [ 87 , 88 , 89 ]. All these demand response approaches are illustrated in Fig.
Furthermore, studies suggest that residential energy savings through behaviour change are faster than any other interventions [ , , ].
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In addition, peak time energy conservation through behaviour change can save between At the same time, Powells et al. The authors have also identified some practices such as cooking and meal times which are not flexible at all for families on shift work. In reviewing the literature, the success of different DSM strategies that can be achieved is depicted in Fig. It can be seen that energy-saving behaviour as a demand response strategy could reduce demand by between 0. Long-term DSM programs in Bangladesh [ 62 ] did not include any strategies in relation to energy-saving behaviour change at residences extensively, except limited awareness development programs through electronic and print media [ 60 ].
It is evident from the literature that different DSM strategies must deal with some investment costs at different levels of implementation, which has been depicted in Fig. This is an illustrative example, as the investment cost magnitude along the x-axis and associated time along the y-axis to implement the DSM depend on many other factors in the developing world, such as government policy support and long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the program [ ].
Nonetheless, the relation between investment cost and implementation time will follow the trend as indicated in Fig. In achieving a properly planned DSM strategy for the residential sector for any nation, four consecutive steps need to be followed over time as illustrated in Fig. Thirdly, after related technology deployment, appropriate pricing schemes cf. The former requires considerable time and costs to be implemented.
In contrast, the latter can be achieved relatively faster than the former with no or minimum costs.
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