Since , a new class of quantitative phase imaging methods was officially approved. This class brings together methods of white light interferometry [ 1 , 2 ], phase shift interferometry [ 3 — 5 ], digital holographic microscopy [ 6 , 7 ], laser interference microscopy [ 8 , 9 ], coherent phase microscopy [ 10 ], coherent correlation interferometry [ 11 , 12 ], etc. The main advantage of methods above is an ability to reconstruct the quantitative topological phase relief [ 13 , 14 ] which combines optical and geometrical properties of an investigated sample.
In this study was concluded that quantitative phase imaging methods are the worthy alternative to traditional methods of optical, probe and electron microscopy methods, or extra tool for additional samples characterization. It is also discussed new results of a laser interference microscopy methods application for actual problems of optical industry, microelectronics, and biomedical investigations [ 8 , 9 ].
The MIM laser interference microscope [ 9 ] with modified illuminator scheme was used as experimental setup. Calculation of the object phase shifts is made by modified phase steps method: 1 where I n x , y is the distribution of the intensity of the photosensor field of view, k is wave number, d is displacement of the reference mirror.
With such variant, the error of calculation of the of the phase difference in each point of the image I 0 x , y — I 3 x , y is reduced with minimal intensity due to the registration of the interferential signal variable component by analog with the above described time intervals method. The standing points value of the support mirror shift d and of the law of displacement d t of the reference mirror are also chosen to proceed from the minimization of the phases difference determination error. The Microscope optical system represents a device in which there are realized two optical channels: navigational channel white light channel and measuring channel.
Both channels give a possibility to use the instrument in two different modes: navigational search of a microstructure of the material testing sample for study and the measuring one. The optical diagram of the Microscope optical system is given in Figure 1 , the optical path of the navigational channel is shown in red lines, the optical path of measuring channel is shown in green lines. The navigational channel represents the far-field optical microscope on reflected light is used to search the region of interest and to document the survey frame.
The radiation source is a LED 2 that illuminates the object through the beam splitter 3. The object image via the tube lens 4 is projected to the digital camera 11 then it comes to the PC. The measuring channel is intended to study the micro-object relief and to get the image with nanoscale resolution; it represents the micro-interferometer according to the Linnik scheme with phase modulator 10 in the reference arm.
The collimated laser beam 1 is divided by the beam splitter 3 into two beams.
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One of the beams objective is focused by the micro objective 13 of the objective arm 7 on the test object 8 and after reflection from the object. It passes the light splitter 3 and projecting system, consisting of the tube lens 4 and projective 6, comes to the photosensor of the digital camera The reference beam is focused by the micro objective of support arm 9 on the mirror of phase modulator 10 that effects the linear-periodical modulation of the optical difference, and after reflection from the mirror of the phase modulator 10 also comes to the photosensor of the digital camera 12, then comes to the PC.
The specially developed software realizes automatized processing of interferograms and displays of investigation results on the PC monitors in the form of three-dimensional and two-dimensional profiles of the object, graphics, and histograms. The selection of the mode of the Microscope optical system operation navigational or measuring is made with the help of the deflecting mirror 5 controlled by the user from the PC.
The MIM modified illuminator optical diagram is presented in Figure 2. The modified illuminator is used to reduce coherent noises in MIM imaging optics. But this relief is unacceptable for super smooth surfaces roughness measurements [ 12 ]. Super smooth surfaces roughness measurement is one of the actual problems of optical industry and microelectronics [ 15 , 16 ].
The roughness of laser mirror surface determines directly the laser beam scattering which leads to energy losses in a resonator. The traditional atomic force microscopy AFM is the widely applicable tool or such measurements, but there are some difficulties in metrology, for example, in low repeatability of laser mirrors dielectric coating Ra measurements. The problem is in atomic level interactions of charged cantilever tip with relatively soft nanoscale surface even in non-contact modes [ 18 ].
This interaction causes the trace-retrace difference of single scan and low repeatability of measurements. The second tool which engineers used for this task is white light interferometry [ 2 ]. The traditional optical profilometry is free of cantilever interaction problem, but the metrology is also unstable due to low lateral resolution. In this case application of super-resolution [ 19 ], quantitative phase imaging methods are more promising due to high lateral resolution, operating speed and absent of any mechanical electrical or magnetic interactions with measured surface [ 11 , 14 ].
The difference in roughness could be explained by the fact that multilayer refractive coating makes the surface smoother, especially in nanoscale roughness range [ 20 ]. Linear dimensions measurements for microelectronics samples is also the actual task in the semiconductor industry [ 22 — 25 ]. Table 2 demonstrates the results of lateral dimensions measurements experiment. The test sample which consists of different from 1.
The uncertainty for this experiment was estimated as composition of random standard uncertainty and systematic standard uncertainty. The random standard uncertainty is characterized by RMS of stripe width x i , using the following equation: 3 where is the RMS of measurement results, n is its number. The composition of random standard uncertainty and systematic standard uncertainty is calculated with the following equation: 6 where K is the coefficient dependent on the relation of random standard uncertainty and systematic standard uncertainty: 7. The RMS of the measurements results is calculated as: 8.
The comparison of stripes width measured values and uncertainties reveal the advantages of SEM and AFM methods as multipurpose tools. The super smooth surfaces roughness measurements and micro- and nanostructure linear dimensions measurements are the two main tasks in optical and microelectronic industries. That is why optical measurement tools seem more promising for the in-line metrology. This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation in the framework of the state task No 9. Cite this article as : P.
Ignatyev, A. Skrynnik, Y.
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Data correspond to usage on the plateform after The current usage metrics is available hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days. Table 1 The laser mirror roughness measurements. Table 2 Results of lateral dimensions measurements experiment. De Groot, Principles of interference microscopy for the measurement of surface topography, Adv.
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Vergyris, et al. Liu, Y. Wu, F. Wu, Phase shifting interferometry from two normalized interferograms with random tilt phase-shift, Opt. Huang, X. Lu, Y. Zhou, et al. Ramirez-delreal, M. Mora-Gonzalez, F. Casillas-Rodriguez, et al. Mahajan, V. Trivedi, P. Vora, et al. Nehmetallah, Multi-wavelength digital holographic microscopy using a telecentric reflection configuration, Digit.
Ignatiev, A. Loparev, K. Indukaev, P. Osipov, Investigating the optical properties of nanostructures by modulation interference microscopy, J. Loparev, E. Romash, A. Zenzinov, et al. In particular, acoustic microscopy has proved to be the ultimate non-destructive approach for the identification of ultrathin air delamination in multilayer systems, being sensitive to air features of sub-micrometric thickness. Therefore this non-destructive testing method is included in different quality control verification programmes such us:.
Application Of Optical Microscopy To Dimensional Measurements In Microelectronics
Thanks to the Virtual Lab tool the customer can devise his own test solution specifically adapted to the actual needs and requirements and monitor test results in real time, without the need to wait for the completion of all the activities. Therefore, the final user can adapt the inspection areas and planes depending on the initial results.
He will also receive feedback and advice from our test engineers during or thereupon inspection. Detailed inspection records can be accessed immediately after the activity completion.
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Thus, manufacturers and users gain valuable time to develop contingency plans and solutions to address detected anomalies. Francisco Javier has a Degree in Physics and a Ph. He works as materials and physical test senior engineer within the Destructive and Physical Analysis Department. In Alter Technology laboratories, his main tasks address the characterization of EEE parts by advanced microscopy techniques and the conception of new test procedures. There are well-known advantages to using these photonic technologies in space, such as the limited generation of noise, electromagnetic immunity,.
Micrometric-wide internal features of sub-micrometric thickness can be easily detected in our recently upgraded instrument. The high lateral resolution is within the current state of the start in the non-destructive inspection of deeply embedded objects. Hybrid microelectronics within plastic packages are comprehensively inspected thanks to the con-focal resolution provided by the scanning acoustic microscopy technique. Your Name required.
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