It is the writer's opinion that many characters in Hesse's works represent aspects or personified contents of the unconscious. An individual becomes aware of these contents in the form of projections upon others, or as mythological forms. The origin and development of some of Hesse's characters can be traced directly to the analytical sessions with Dr. Lang, a student of Jung. Chapter III deals with these early writings and demonstrates the development 1. Maier's dissertation was never published.
The manuscript is located at the Schiller Nationalmuseum in Marbach, Germany. This abridgment is being posted by HHP on the internet with the kind permission of Dr. Jung, pp. Also H. This is supported by Hesse's biographer Hugo Ball. Jung claims to have had a direct influence upon Siddhartha and Steppenwolf in the course of analytical sessions with Hesse. Such an undertaking has the full endorsemant of Jung as exemplified by the fact that a similar investigation of E.
The relationship between psychological origin and the aesthetic value of a work is another subject, and is discussed by Jung in his work. Furthermore, we are not concerned here with the validity of the psychology of C. Jung as such. Such a discussion properly belongs in the 4. The same claim is made by J. Kunze in a recent study Lebensgestaltung und Weltanschauung in H. Hesse's Siddhartha, Malinberg, Herzogenbusch, , p. Jung, der nicht im blossen Erkennen des Unbewussten, oder dessen Bekmpfung durch willensvolles Handeln, sondern durch Bejahung der aus den Tiefen der Seele aufsteigenden Flut von Trieben und Regungen Heil und Rettung sah, Jung hat das innere Leben des Dichters in den Kriegsjahren weitgehend beeinflusst.
Von ihm bernimmt Hesse die Lehre, dass das Unbewusste die Aufgabe hat, das zu eng gewordene Bewusstsein zu ergnzen, wieder weit zu machen. Hermann Hesse, Briefe, p. Compare Jung's and Hesse's letters in Introduction [of the complete dissertation. ED], p.
ED] and p. Jung, Briefe II, , ed. Aniela Jaff, Olten: Walter, , pp. Nelson's article also contains Hesse's response after E. Maier had sent him a copy of Jung's letter. Hesse said that, as a friend of discretion, he had not read it. While the ideas of Dr. Jung have had profound influence upon the creative work of Hermann Hesse, other influences are not thereby excluded. Other dissertations might wish to examine the influence of Ludwig Klages,8 Sigmund Freud, or Oriental philosophy, or of German Pietism.
The Psychology of Jung in Hermann Hesse Work's
Mauerhofer even went so far as to characterize all of Hesses works as the expression of introversion. He has taken from all and has given back to the world a new synthesis which bears the imprint of his own creative genius. Warum war das so sehr schwer?
This is the motto of Hermann Hesses novel which was written in It was first published as an autobiography in Berlin in under the pseudonym Emil Sinclair. Not until , for the ninth edition, was the novel published under his own name. The name Emil Sinclair was to symbolize a new beginning for the author. Richard Matzig refers to Demian as the Geburt eines Mythos.
On that journey he meets with the symbolical figures which are the obstacles to be conquered and at the same time the milestones marking his progress. Ball, p. Mauerhofer, pp. Silomon, p. Lang,18 Demian is a novel of individuation par excellence. The stages of the journey to self-realization are the various chapters. This is the sole intent of the author Hesse: Mich interessieren nur die Schritte, die ich in meinem Leben tat, um zu mir selbst zu gelangen. With each one of them in turn does Sinclair identify himself, and in each does he recognize an aspect of his own soul, thus assimilating and integrating the projections of the unconscious.
They are not separate characters who cross the path of Sinclair, as Matzig believes,20 but symbols produced from the depth of Sinclairs unconscious. They are presented as real, and Sinclair occupies himself seriously with these characters, because symbols must not only be understood. Pistorius, however, is the only character of the novel that has an existence separate and apart from Sinclair. He is Dr. For a while he becomes the teacher and guide of Sinclair. He introduces Sinclair into the mysteries of Gnosticism, of Abraxas and Cain.
Pistorius stands aside, does not become part of the personality of Sinclair, is merely another seeker, a weakling who cannot leave the community of other seekers and stand alone with his fate.
C.G. Jung and Hermann Hesse: A Book of Two Friendships by Miguel Serrano
Pistorius, in the final analysis, is not creative, therefore he cannot bring the patient any further than he himself is able to go. Maier Refer to Introduction reiterates this viewpoint in a pithier way. There is a resemblance between Pistorius and Dernian, the latter acting at times as leader and guide, and at others as friend and Alter Ego. Nevertheless, the two are not identical as Berta Berger erroneously assumes.
Ich nickte nur. Sprach da nicht eine 16 Jacobi, p. Demian, p. Jungs letter in the Introduction of the dissertation.
Hermann Hesse's Demian
See also 6. Stimme, die nur aus mir selber kommen konnte? Die alles wusste?
- C.G. Jung and Hermann Hesse: A Book of Two Friendships!
- Nineteen Eighty-Four: Science Between Utopia and Dystopia;
- Hermann Hesse's Depression, Pietism, and Psychoanalysis.
Die alles besser, klarer wusste als ich selber? Throughout the novel Sinclair identifies himself with Demian. In the very end he withdraws the projection altogether and it becomes part of his own total personality. This is the essence of integration, whereas Pistorius is rejected as an entity outside and alien to his character.
If Demian had been but the person of Dr. Lang then the integration of that person into the personality of Sinclair would have become identification with the doctor, the exact opposite of Lsung vom Arzt in der Analyse which Berger claims. Sinclair separates himself from Pistorius with pain and regret, as is normally the case, but understands the necessity of doing so in order to fulfill his own fate which is not identical with that of the doctor.
Sinclair is well on the way to Individuation. If new problems approach him he need only look into the dark mirror of his own soul to find their solution. I therefore disagree with Berta Berger who claims that Hesse never got beyond the initial stages of the analysis. The process of Individuation is a continuous one to which Hesse has given exquisite literary form.
Neither in his successive novels, nor in his real life has he again required the assistance of the physician. Structure and Content of Demian The structure of the novel is that of the process of Individuation as indicated in the Introduction. The way to Self leads first to childhood and its experiences: the contents of the Personal Unconscious. The next step is to demote the rational world from its customary position of primacy in order to establish and admit the equivalence of the irrational, namely the unconscious.
As the deeper layers of the unconscious are probed, the Archetypes become activated and appear as projections, dreams or visions. Berger, p. Jung as late as February , and with J. Lang early in August , cf. Their order of appearance is, first, the Shadow, then, a personification of a new center of the personality, in this case Demian; then, the Anima; later, the Bird; and finally, one of the last to appear, the Mana Personality of Mother Eve. Often, however, the Archetypes of a more basic nature make their appearance rather early in the process, but are not noticed right away, as was the case with the Bird in the crest above Sinclairs door.
Each Archetype disappears as it becomes consciously integrated. New, more basic ones, appear, i. The difference between past end future disappears where eternal values are concerned. Thus collective dream symbols can assume prophetic contents as Sinclair feels toward the end. Individuation, which is eventually achieved, coincides with the end of the novel.
All projections have been withdrawn, and a new Weltanschauung has been established. Chapter One - Two Worlds Young Emil Sinclair is bewildered by the realization of the existence of two worlds: the bright world of father and mother, of love and honor, bible texts and wisdom; and the dark world of ghosts, monsters, crime and sex.
- C G Jung & Hermann Hesse: A Record of Two Friendships: Miguel Serrano: Daemon Publications.
- Welfare, Choice and Solidarity in Transition: Reforming the Health Sector in Eastern Europe (Federico CaffA? Lectures)?
- C.G. Jung and Hermann Hesse: A Book of Two Friendships.
Sinclair considered himself as belonging to the bright world. The fatal attraction which the dark world exerted upon Sinclair changed to outright domination personified by Frank Kromer.
Little thefts and lies, committed to appease Kromer, undermine the former superiority of the bright world, and let the dark world enter.
Related The psychology of Jung in Hesses Works
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